The Council of Nicea
325 the council opened and continued for two months, with Constantine attending. The
bishops modified an existing creed to fit their purposes. The creed, with some
changes made at a later fourth century council, is still given today in many
churches. The Nicene Creed, as it came to be called, takes elaborate care by
repeating several redundancies to identify the Son with the Father rather than with the
"We believe in one God, the Father
Almighty, maker of all things visible and invisible; and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son
of God, the only-begotten of his Father, of the substance of the Father, God of God, Light
of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the
Father. By whom all things were made ... Who ... was incarnate and was made human
Only two bishops, along with Arius, refused
to sign the creed. Constantine banished them from the empire, while the other
bishops went on to celebrate their unity in a great feast at the imperial palace.
The creed is much more than an affirmation of
Jesus' divinity. It is also an affirmation of our separation from God and
Christ. It takes great pains to describe Jesus as God in order to deny that he is
part of God's creation. He is "begotten, not made," therefore totally
separate from us, the created beings. As scholar George Leonard Prestige writes, the
Nicene Creed's description of Jesus tells us "that the Son of God bears no
resemblance to the ... creatures."
The description of Jesus as the only Son of
God is carried forward in the Apostles' Creed, which is used in many Protestant churches
today. It reads: "I believe in God, the Father Almighty... I believe in
Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord." But even that language - calling Jesus
God's only Son - denies that we can ever attain the sonship that Jesus did.
Christians may be interested to know that
many scholars analyzing the Bible now believe that Jesus never claimed to be the only Son
of God. This was a later development based on a misinterpretation of the gospel of
There is further evidence to suggest that
Jesus believed all people could achieve the goal of becoming Sons of God. But the
churches, by retaining these creeds, remain in bondage to Constantine and his three
Some of the bishops who attended the council
were uncomfortable with the council's definition of the Son and thought they might have
gone too far. But the emperor, in a letter sent to the bishops who were not in
attendance at Nicea, required that they accept "this truly Divine injunction."
Constantine said that since the council's
decision had been "determined in the holy assemblies of the bishops," the Church
officials must regard it as "indicative of the Divine will."
The Roman god Constantine had spoken.
Clearly, he had concluded that the orthodox position was more conducive to a strong and
unified Church than the Arian position and that it therefore must be upheld.
Constantine also took the opportunity to
inaugurate the first systematic government persecution of dissident Christians. He
issued an edict against "heretics," calling them "haters and enemies of
truth and life, in league with destruction."
Even though he had begun his reign with an
edict of religious toleration, he now forbade the heretics (mostly Arians) to assemble in
any public or private place, including private homes, and ordered that they be deprived of
"every gathering point for [their] superstitious meetings," including "all
the houses of prayer." These were to be given to the orthodox Church.
There heretical teachers were forced to flee,
and many of their students were coerced back into the orthodox fold. The emperor
also ordered a search for their books, which were to be confiscated and destroyed.
Hiding the works of Arius carried a severe penalty - the death sentence.
Nicea, nevertheless, marked the beginning of
the end of the concepts of both preexistence, reincarnation, and salvation through union
with God in Christian doctrine. It took another two hundred years for the ideas to
But Constantine had given the Church the
tools with which to do it when he molded Christianity in his own image and made Jesus the
only Son of God. From now on, the Church would become representative of a capricious
and autocratic God - a God who was not unlike Constantine and other Roman emperors.
Tertullian, a stanch anti-Origenian and a
father of the Church, had this to say about those who believed in reincarnation and not
the resurrection of the dead: "What a panorama of spectacle on that day [the
Resurrection]! What sight should I turn to first to laugh and applaud? ... Wise
philosophers, blushing before their students as they burn together, the followers to whom
they taught that the world is no concern of God's, whom they assured that either they had
no souls at all or that what souls they had would never return to their former bodies?
.... These are things of greater delight, I believe, than a circus, both kinds of theater,
and any stadium." Tertullian was a great influence in having so-called
"heretics" put to death.
| Reincarnation index | Next |